Work: Banter and Profundity (often known as Accordeon and Mandolin), particular orchestra (19 gamers), 2003
One of many previous couple of identified works of Dr. Jose Maceda. This piece was by no means carried out.
In 2017, two composers Malek Lopez and Arvin Nogueras made digital realizations of the rating. Under is a textual content describing each their method to the conclusion of this piece:
The duty was to interpret Dr. Maceda’s advanced, multilayered composition both via efficiency or synthesis. I selected the latter and opted to make use of a software program that permits the utilization of a number of tone producing modules and vst plug-ins that emulate acoustic devices utilizing sample-based sound synthesis. There are 19 devices within the piece, and an assortment of synth patches have been utilized in processing which created fascinating textures and distinctive granular results. I additionally used a Tascam tape recorder and tape echo delay unit, the place I had the sound move via to attain sure textures which have an effect on the general sound.
The entire piece was transcribed into MIDI info, whereby sure devices have been changed. French horn, glockenspiel, saxophone, clarinet, cymbals, tuba, and violin have been changed with synthesizers and different plug-ins. I used a pattern based mostly MIDI devices for the remainder. Sound processing additionally created fascinating textures, whereas panning and filtering have been efficient in reaching a unified output.
This rendition greatest distills my sensibility of experiencing and creating palpitating layers of synthesized devices, augmented with ghostly echoes which permit the listener to pay shut consideration to the sonic particulars and circulation of the piece.
Arvin C. Nogueras, 2017
Under is the evaluation of the rating by famend composer and professor of music Chris Brown, written in September 2017 at Mills Faculty, Oakland, California.
(Taken with permission from the creator.)
José Maceda’s Accordeon and Mandolin:
Bridging Native Cultures and International Sensibilities
Greater than any of the opposite nice musical modernists of the twentieth century, José Maceda was actually a world humanist, whose depth of information and expertise of the various treasures of the world’s music was unsurpassed. However globalism itself is a double-edged sword, because it originated in violent colonialisms, and continues via the unfold of company cultures that strip from us not solely our knowledge, but in addition our confidence in our personal cultural inheritance. Our downside now’s how you can allow native tradition and international consciousness to flourish concurrently. Accordeon and Mandolin (2003), certainly one of Dr. Maceda’s final works, presents to the start of the twenty first century an instance of how we would achieve preserving the independence of native cultures, whereas additionally consciously collaborating within the richness of musical traditions of the entire world. It exemplifies these humanistic qualities which might be embodied in his life and work: humility, curiousity, self-discipline, persistence, humor, and reflectivity.
Maceda’s early works from the Sixties blended aesthetic modernity with the values of communal expertise gained from his deep ethnomusicological research of pre-modern cultures in Asia, Africa, and South America. In Udlot-Udlot, certainly one of his earliest works, he radically juxtaposed the native and international by transporting parts of music rituals from pre-colonial village cultures into participatory performances for twentieth century city audiences. The piece is rapidly communicated to the viewers with quite simple directions for enjoying sticks, bamboo tubes, wood-blocks and whistles whereas singing and shifting across the efficiency area, all synchronized to a set construction of blocks of clock-time proven on placards held up for all to see. Following a efficiency of this work within the 12 months 2000 at Yerba Buena Gardens in San Francisco he made these feedback to the viewers:
“You see how straightforward it’s to make music…a really severe music with quite simple music. It’s a easy ritualistic music and straightforward, you don’t have to check piano for 100 years, nor the violin, nor singing, simply play, isn’t it enjoyable?”
Simply sounds and time — even abstracted from the cultural functions of their origin, they are often significant to up to date audiences supplied with a construction to discover and devices to communally play and pay attention collectively. Searching for commonality amongst numerous musics he studied and skilled, he developed a compositional language utilizing blocks of sound characterised both by drones, constantly repeating static textures, or melodies, materials of sinuous musical strains traced by a number of voices sounding concurrently. Appreciating his drone and melody based mostly music requires audiences to be taught to pay attention actively to dense musical textures, exploring them freely in a manner just like listening to the pure wall-of-sound in a rainforest, or to the sporadic sounds of many individuals working collectively in a rice-field. He used this summary musical language nonetheless to determine within the fashionable Philippines consciousness of the sonic id of its indigenous cultures by completely utilizing pre-Hispanic devices, like gongs, bamboo flutes and percussion, and voices. Devices carry the provenance of their origins, and can all the time root any music within the physicality of their historical past and tradition.
By the Eighties, Dr. Maceda started progressively to develop the locality of his sound world by additionally utilizing European devices in his music. He was himself a live performance pianist, it was a part of his personal cultural id, but he stated that he was unable to conceive of writing a chunk for piano till he realized he wanted not less than 5 pianos to do it! In European music instrument choirs are often used to amplify, or to harmonize a single musical line; however in his music he wanted them to appreciate the socially collaborative course of of making blocks of comparable sound colours. By the Nineteen Nineties he was additionally writing for orchestras of solely European devices, however this sound-block language remained remarkably constant, producing a recognizably revolutionary type.
Area equals Time — Maceda’s scores are written in an unconventional type on graph-paper, by which the even circulation of time is blocked into sections of measures of 4 beats, the place the primary observe in a measure is written immediately on the bar line, in order that even divisions of time may be written with precisely the identical quantity of area between each observe of the identical worth. To create textures of temporally unbiased voices inside a sound-block, every instrument may divide quantities of time otherwise, and these proportions have been measured graphically and drawn into the rating. It enabled him to compose outdoors of the “tyranny” of the bar-line, like portray on a canvas with none tips, solely its edges. Whereas such rhythmic complexity is attribute of a lot fashionable music, Maceda’s answer to realizing it was radically easy. He instructed performers to “unfold the variety of notes over the period of time comparatively evenly — it should not be TOO exact!” It fashions a easy layering of unbiased voices, like sounds created by flocks of birds or bugs in nature. It exactly defines looseness, a relaxed independence, with every voice in a position to dwell in its personal timeframe.
Accordeon and Mandolin is written in the identical notational type, nevertheless it provides new parts to his musical language. Its title, and the subtitle “with a particular orchestra”, recommend a double-concerto for 2 devices mostly related to European people music, accompanied by an ensemble of winds, strings, piano and percussion that features saxophones and drums that associated to American jazz and polka bands. And slightly than utilizing these devices solely to appreciate his well-established compositional language, the music dips immediately into stylistic imitation of types related to them, creating its narrative via a altering relationship of those devices to their conventional stylistic identities. Can the cultural identities of those devices efficiently be expressed throughout the context of an summary compositional language based mostly on sound-blocks and time? And may these native and globalized roles inform one another, in addition to merely co-exist, to create a definite musical narrative?
These questions are addressed otherwise within the digital realizations of the rating made for this Maceda100 exhibition by composers Arvin Nogueras and Malek Lopez. Accordeon and Mandolin has but to be carried out by an acoustic ensemble, which is maybe associated to challenges that these questions elevate: the place does such a “particular orchestra” exist, that may each perceive and execute these types in a significant manner? In our multicultural musical world, how do any of us operate meaningfully inside and between musical types? Digital artists little doubt play a task right here due to their means to conjure up digital worlds. The realizations by Nogueras and Lopez allow us to listen to two completely different interpretations of Maceda’s experimental concepts on this work. Noguera emphasizes the facility of the sound-blocks type, realizing its rhythmic depth by purely digital means, and fusing orchestral blocks into electrical clouds utilizing section and distortion processing. His interpretation totally transports the rating right into a rhythmically enriched electronica. Lopez opts as an alternative for a dynamically balanced method, and his model sounds extra like a masterfully performed orchestra. His rendering of the early solo sections is especially putting, and it satisfied me of the composer’s slyly humorous intent. Whereas Maceda’s rating posits not a digital, however a bodily world, these digital realizations are designs for the interpretation of a piece that may ultimately be embodied when the bodily devices, with all of the heft of their cultural and bodily presence are performed collectively by musicians on a stage. However due to Nogueras’ and Lopez’ fastidiously rendered visions, the story of Accordeon and Mandolin can now be heard, and is coming to life.
Bio: (b. 31 January 1917, Manila – d. 5 Could 2004, Quezon Metropolis)
Prof. Maceda studied piano with Victorina Lobregat on the Academy of Music in Manila, the place he graduated in 1935, and with Alfred Cortot on the École Normale de Musique de Paris from 1937–41. He later studied piano privately with E. Robert Schmitz in San Francisco from 1946–49 and musicology at Columbia College and Queens Faculty, Metropolis College of New York from 1950–52. He then studied anthropology on the College of Chicago and ethnomusicology at Indiana College in Bloomington in 1957–58 and the College of California, Los Angeles from 1961–63, the place he earned his PhD.
Amongst his many honours have been grants from the Guggenheim Basis (1957–58, for research within the USA) and the Rockefeller Basis (1968, for analysis in Africa and Brazil), the honour Ordre des Palmes Académiques from the federal government of France (1978), the College of the Philippines Excellent Analysis Award (1985), the John D. Rockefeller III Award from the Asian Cultural Council in New York, New York (1987), the Philippine Nationwide Science Society Achievement Award (1988), the award Tanglaw ng Lahi from Ateneo de Manila College (1988), and the award Gawad ng Lahi from the Cultural Middle of the Philippines (1989). He later acquired the Fumio Koizumi Prize for Ethnomusicology in Tōkyō (1991), the Nationwide Analysis Council Award within the Philippines (1993), the award Araw ng Maynila (1996), the Nikkei Award in Tōkyō (1997), the award of the Civitella Ranieri Basis in Umbertide (1997), and the title Nationwide Artist of the Philippines from the federal government of the Philippines (1997). He was later named an Officier dans l’Ordre Nationwide du Mérite (1997) and a Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (2001), each by the federal government of France.
As a musicologist, he devoted a lot of his time to ethnomusicological research of the music of the Philippines and Southeast Asia from 1953–2004. He undertook music analysis within the discipline all through the Philippines and in jap and western Africa, Brazil, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. He wrote extensively about his analysis for publications in Canada, Germany, Malaysia, the Philippines, the UK, and the USA, in addition to the ebook Gongs and Bamboos: A Panorama of Philippine Music Devices (1998, College of the Philippines Press). Yuji Takahashi translated lots of his articles into Japanese within the ebook Drone and Melody (1989, Shinjuku Shobo Firm). As well as, the College of the Philippines Diliman in Quezon Metropolis comprises an archive of greater than 2500 hours of his discipline recordings in 51 language teams, full with musical devices, pictures, textual content transcriptions, and translations.
He was additionally lively in different positions. He carried out as a pianist in France, the Philippines and the USA from 1935–57, throughout which era he launched many new works, primarily by composers from France, and pioneered a French type of piano-playing within the Philippines. He labored with the Groupe de Recherches Musicales in Paris in 1958. He later labored as a conductor of avant-garde music that he organized for varied organisations within the Philippines and for UNESCO from 1964–68, thereby introducing music by Edgard Varèse, Iannis Xenakis and different composers alongside music from China and the Philippines.
He taught as Professor of Piano and Ethnomusicology on the College of the Philippines Diliman from 1952–90, the place he was named a College Professor in 1988 and was professor emeritus from 1990–2004. He served as government director of its Middle for Ethnomusicology from 1997–2004. He gave lectures all through the world, together with the Charles Seeger Lecture on the assembly of the Society for Ethnomusicology in Los Angeles in 1984, a lecture because the Worldwide Arts Symposium Speaker on the Nationwide Academy of Arts in Seoul in 1994 and a lecture on the Arts Summit in Indonesia in 1995. He later taught because the Rayson Huang Visiting Lecturer on the College of Hong Kong in 1999 and as Jean Macduff Vaux Composer-in-Residence at Mills Faculty in Oakland, California in 2000.
COMPLETE LIST OF WORKS (observe that works are listed in accordance with a normal class outlined by the composer; the date given for every work refers to its première, besides within the case of Banter and Profundity, whose date is of composition)
I – MUSIC FOR BAMBOOS, MIXED INSTRUMENTS AND VOICES:
(1) Ugma-ugma – Buildings (textual content by the composer), combined refrain, carabao horn, whistle, shō (mouth organ from Japan), kubing (jaw harp from the Philippines)/aroding (mouth harp from the Philippines), gambang (xylophone from Southeast Asia), gendèr (metallophone from Indonesia), kulintang (rack of gongs from the Philippines), suspended agung (gongs with stopped sounds from the Philippines), suspended gandingan (gongs with freely-vibrating sounds from the Philippines), rattle, tagutok (bamboo scraper from the Philippines), cowbells/different small bells, clapper, paiban (clappers from China), pakkung (buzzer from the Philippines), tongatong (stamping tubes from the Philippines), bamboo sticks, 1963
(2) Kubing (textual content by the composer), 5 male voices, 7 kubing, 3 batiwtiw (bamboo zithers from the Philippines), 3 tagutok, 7 pakkung, 7 pairs of tongatong, 1966
(3) Pagsamba – Worship (ritual music for a round auditorium, textual content from the Mass [Tagalog translation]), 100 combined voices, 25 male voices, 8 suspended agung, 8 suspended gandingan, 100 gamers (100 ongiyong [whistle flutes from the Philippines], 100 balingbing [bamboo buzzers from the Philippines], 100 palakpak [bamboo clappers from the Philippines], 100 bangibang [yoke-shaped wooden bars from the Philippines; played with beaters]), 1968
(4) Udlot-udlot – Hesitations (open-air ritual, textual content by the composer), vocal group (100s of voices; shifting round each 10 minutes), group of bangibang (100s of gamers; circling round with formal steps), instrumental group (flutes, tongatong, balingbing; 100s of gamers) (all sitting inside a circle), 1975 (additionally model as music-theatre work [VII (1)])
(5) Ading (textual content by the composer), 100 combined voices, 100 gamers (100 batiwtiw, 100 tagutok, 100 pakkung, 100 bangibang), viewers advert libitum, 1978
(6) Music for Indonesian Gongs, Metallophones, Bamboos, Flute, Contrabassoon, and Voices (textual content by the composer), 8 feminine voices, 8 male voices, piccolo, contrabassoon, kethuk (gong from Indonesia) (+ kempul [set of knobbed gongs from Indonesia], gong suwukan [gong from Indonesia], 4 gendèr, 4 saron panerus [metallophones from Indonesia]), pakkung (+ whistle, tagutok, clapper, 2 sticks, 2 tongatong, shaker), 1997
II – MUSIC FOR SIX GONG FAMILIES:
(1) Agungan – A Play of Gongs, 3 excessive suling (bamboo flutes from Southeast Asia)/different flute-type devices, 4 kulintang, 6 gangsa (flat gongs from the Philippines; performed with the fingers), 6 gangsa (performed with sticks), 5 small suspended agung of the Tiruray, 3 giant suspended agung, 2 suspended gandingan, 4 sulibao (conical drums from the Philippines) (1 participant), 1965
III – MUSIC FOR MOUTH HARPS:
(1) Aroding (textual content from a music from Palawan), 7 male voices, 3 pispis (tiny flutes from the Philippines), 40 aroding, 1983
IV – MUSIC FOR CASSETTE RECORDERS AND RADIO STATIONS:
(1) Cassettes 100, 100 tape recorders (100 operators), 1971
(2) Ugnayan – Atmospheres, 20 radio stations, 1974
V – MUSIC FOR EUROPEAN INSTRUMENTS, BAMBOOS, PERCUSSION, AND GONGS:
(1) Siasid, 10 blown bamboo-tubes/10 trombones, 10 violins, 4 percussion (3 bamboo slit-drums, 3 tagutok, 3 pakkung, 3 conical drums of the Ibaloi/comparable drums), 1983
(2) Suling-Suling, 10 suling/10 flutes, 10 gangsa, 10 kudlung (two-string lute from the Philippines)/10 tagutok/10 pakkung, 1985
(3) Strata, 5 flutes, 5 guitars, 5 cellos, 5 tam-tams, 10 balingbing/10 comparable devices (+ 10 bangibang/10 paiban/10 comparable devices), 1988
VI – MUSIC FOR ORCHESTRAL OR EUROPEAN INSTRUMENTS:
(1) Dissemination, olimong (whistle flute from the Philippines)/comparable instrument, 5 flutes, 5 oboes, 5 French horns, 5 violins, 3 cellos, 2 double basses, 2 gongs/2 tam-tams, 1990
(2) Distemperament, 3 flutes, 3 oboes, 3 clarinets, 3 bass clarinets, 3 bassoons, 3 French horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, 3 violins, 3 violas, 3 cellos, 3 double basses, 1992
(3) Music for 5 Pianos, 5 pianos, 1993
(4) Two Pianos and 4 Winds, clarinet, bassoon, French horn, trombone, 2 pianos, 1996
(5) Exchanges, Music for a Chamber Orchestra, small orchestra, 1997
(6) Colours with out Rhythm, harp, piano, harpsichord, celesta, vibraphone, xylophone, marimba, percussion in 10 teams (10 whole gamers), giant orchestra, 1998
(7) Music for Two Pianos and 4 Percussion Teams, 2 pianos, percussion in 4 teams (4 whole gamers), 2000
(8) Sujeichon – Korean Courtroom Music for 4 Pianos, 4 pianos, 2002
(9) Banter and Profundity, small orchestra (19 gamers), 2003
VII – MUSIC AS THEATRE:
(1) Udlot-udlot (music-theatre work, textual content by the composer), voice, 4 flutes (all + tongatong, balingbing), bangibang, 1997 (model of open-air ritual [I (4)])
Music for Indonesian Gongs, Metallophones, Bamboos, Flute, Contrabassoon, and Voices. Josefino Chino Toledo/AUIT Vocal Chamber Ensemble (Nationwide Fee for Tradition and the Arts/Tunugan Basis, 1999)
Music for 5 Pianos; Two Pianos and 4 Winds. Anna Elisabeth Klett, clarinet; Signe Haugland, bassoon; Nina Frederike Jeppesen, French horn; Hiroshi Kurata, trombone; Kazuoki Fujii, Kayako Matsunaga, Aki Takahashi, Yuji Takahashi, Rikuya Terashima, pianos (ALM Information: ALCD-54, 2000)
Pagsamba; Suling-Suling; Colours with out Rhythm. (Tzadik Information: TZ 7067, 2001)
Strata; Sujeichon – Korean Courtroom Music for 4 Pianos; Music for Two Pianos and 4 Percussion Teams. Chris Brown, Belle Bulwinkle, Charity Chan, Kanoko Nishi, pianos; Steed Cowart/The Mills Performing Group; Ramón Pagayon Santos/U. P. Up to date Music Gamers (Tzadik Information: TZ 8043, 2007)
Ugnayan. (Tzadik Information: TZ 8068, 2009)
Listed here are movies to a few of his higher identified works:
Colours with out Rhythm
Video documentation of Udlot-Udlot at Yerba Buena Gardens, April, 2003